A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. This summary provides an introduction to the terminology used to describe, classify, and compare batteries for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles. It provides a basic background, defines the variables used to characterize battery operating conditions, and describes the manufacturer specifications used to characterize battery nominal and maximum characteristics.

#### Maybe you want to recap what we had learned in school

##### Ohm’s law:

#### Related terminologies

Name | Unit | English meaning | Chinese meaning |

Voltage | V | volts | 伏特 |

Current | A | amperes | 安培 |

Resistance | Ω | ohms | 欧姆 |

Electric charge | C | coulomb | 库伦 |

Capacitance | F | farad | 法拉 |

#### Battery Basics

##### Cell, modules, and packs

Hybrid and electric vehicles have a high voltage battery pack that consists of individual modules and cells organized in series and parallel. A cell is the smallest, packaged form a battery can take and is generally on the order of one to six volts. A module consists of several cells generally connected in either series or parallel. A battery pack is then assembled by connecting modules together, again either in series or parallel.

##### Battery Classifications

Not all batteries are created equal, even batteries of the same chemistry. The main trade-off in battery development is between power and energy: batteries can be either high-power or high-energy, but not both. Often manufacturers will classify batteries using these categories. Other common classifications are High Durability, meaning that the chemistry has been modified to provide higher battery life at the expense of power and energy.

##### C- and E- rates

In describing batteries, discharge current is often expressed as a C-rate.

in order to normalize against battery capacity, which is often very different between batteries. A C-rate is a measure of the rate at which a battery is discharged relative to its maximum capacity. A 1C rate means that the discharge current will discharge the entire battery in 1 hour. For a battery with a capacity of 100 Amp-hrs, this equates to a discharge current of 100 Amps. A 5C rate for this battery would be 500 Amps, and a C/2 rate would be 50 Amps. Similarly, an E-rate describes the discharge power. A 1E rate is the discharge power to discharge the entire battery in 1 hour.

#### Battery Technical Specifications

This section explains the specifications you may see on battery technical specification sheets

used to describe battery cells, modules, and packs.

##### Nominal Voltage (V)

The reported or reference voltage of the battery, also sometimes thought of as the “normal” voltage of the battery.

##### Cut-off Voltage

The minimum allowable voltage. It is this voltage that generally defines the “empty” state of the battery.

##### Capacity or Nominal Capacity (Ah for a specific C-rate)

The coulometric capacity, the total Amp-hours available when the battery is discharged at a certain discharge current (specified as a C-rate) from 100 percent state-of-charge to the cut-off

voltage. Capacity is calculated by multiplying the discharge current (in Amps) by the

discharge time (in hours) and decreases with increasing C-rate.

##### Energy or Nominal Energy (Wh (for a specific C-rate))

The “energy capacity” of the battery, the total Watt-hours available when the battery is discharged at a certain discharge current (specified as a C-rate) from 100 percent state-of-charge to the cut-off voltage. Energy is calculated by multiplying the discharge power (in Watts) by the discharge time (in hours). Like capacity, energy decreases with increasing C-rate.

##### Cycle Life (number for a specific DOD)

The number of discharge-charge cycles the battery can experience before it fails to meet specific performance criteria. Cycle life is estimated for specific charge and discharge conditions. The actual operating life of the battery is affected by the rate and depth of cycles and by other conditions such as temperature and humidity. The higher the DOD, the lower the cycle life.

##### Maximum Continuous Discharge Current

The maximum current at which the battery can be discharged continuously. This limit is usually defined by the battery manufacturer in order to prevent excessive discharge rates that would damage the battery or reduce its capacity. Along with the maximum continuous power of the motor, this defines the top sustainable speed and acceleration of the vehicle.

##### (Maximum) Internal Resistance

The resistance within the battery, generally different for charging and discharging.